ÊThe Guitar Amp Handbook: Understanding Tube Amplifiers and Getting Great Sounds Updated EditionÊ brings fresh information to the table to help guitarists. The Electric Guitar Amplifier adunsexanro.gq - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Mullard Circuits for Audio Amplifiers. Uploaded by. Documents Similar To The Electric Guitar Amplifier Handbook - J. Darr (Sams, ) WW. Mullard Circuits for Audio Amplifiers. Uploaded by. Richard Smith.
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adunsexanro.gq · Home». Also this excellent book on solid state guitar amps - even though you are interested in adunsexanro.gq Enjoy the lowest prices and best selection of guitars at guitar center. Guitar amp handbook dave hunter pdf.
So overall right now, I feel confused and let down by these books. How does this do that, why do I need this there and what are my options, what would happen if I did this or that, stuff like that. Almost like a recipe book on how to create your own circuit.
After reading the books I've read I don't feel like I know much of anything on how to create a circuit. The books will usually only use one small example when describing why a certain resistor or cap change will effect tone, but not go in to detail and give ALL the options you could use and how they would effect the tone, on how to make a circuit. And yet in Dave Hunters book in the back, all the best amp builders usually mention the same things: you need to learn how to create your own circuit so that you can create a sound that is unique, otherwise you're just creating copies of something else.
And it's not that I don't want to start off putting together some kits of classic amps, I DO! I'm totally jones'n to build a 5E3 and then a 5E7 as well.
But I also really want to learn how to create a circuit, I want to know how and why Ken Fischer came up with the Trainwreck circuit, same goes for Dr Z, Leo Fender, etc. Because ultimately I would like to make my own amps and see if I can make something unique down the road, but I don't feel like any of the books tell you how, or give you the "playbook" or "recipe" book so to say on how to build your own circuit.
I would love to hear more suggestions on good books I should read that will meet the criteria I mentioned above. For now, I'm not really interested in dry, EE, mathematic style books. Push—pull amplifiers use two nominally identical gain devices in tandem. One consequence of this is that all even-order harmonic products cancel, allowing only odd-order distortion.
Power amplifiers are of the push-pull type to avoid the inefficiency of Class A amplifiers. A single-ended amplifier will generally produce even as well as odd harmonics.
Push—pull tube amplifiers can be run in class A rarely , AB, or B. Also, a class-B amplifier may have crossover distortion that will be typically high order and thus sonically very undesirable indeed.
Class-A amplifiers measure best at low power. Class-AB and B amplifiers measure best just below max rated power. Loudspeakers present a reactive load to an amplifier capacitance , inductance and resistance. This impedance may vary in value with signal frequency and amplitude. This variable loading affects the amplifier's performance both because the amplifier has nonzero output impedance it cannot keep its output voltage perfectly constant when the speaker load varies and because the phase of the speaker load can change the stability margin of the amplifier.
The influence of the speaker impedance is different between tube amplifiers and transistor amplifiers.
The reason is that tube amplifiers normally use output transformers, and cannot use much negative feedback due to phase problems in transformer circuits. Notable exceptions are various "OTL" output-transformerless tube amplifiers, pioneered by Julius Futterman in the s, or somewhat rarer tube amplifiers that replace the impedance matching transformer with additional often, though not necessarily, transistorized circuitry in order to eliminate parasitics and musically unrelated magnetic distortions.
This circuitry increases the amplifier's output impedance, resulting in response similar to that of tube amplifiers. An amplifier with little or no negative feedback will always perform poorly when faced with a speaker where little attention was paid to the impedance curve.
Design comparison[ edit ] There has been considerable debate over the characteristics of tubes versus bipolar junction transistors. Later forms of the tube, the tetrode and pentode , have quite different characteristics that are in some ways similar to the bipolar transistor.
But there are exceptions, for example designs such as the Zen series by Nelson Pass. Output impedance[ edit ] Loudspeakers usually load audio amplifiers. In audio history, nearly all loudspeakers have been electrodynamic loudspeakers.
There exists also a minority of electrostatic loudspeakers and some other more exotic loudspeakers. Electrodynamic loudspeakers transform electric current to force and force to acceleration of the diaphragm which causes sound pressure. Due to the principle of an electrodynamic speaker, most loudspeaker drivers ought to be driven by an electric current signal.
The current signal drives the electrodynamic speaker more accurately, causing less distortion than a voltage signal. Practically all commercial audio amplifiers are voltage amplifiers. Due to the nature of vacuum tubes and audio transformers, the output impedance of an average tube amplifier is usually considerably higher than the modern audio amplifiers produced completely without vacuum tubes or audio transformers.
Most tube amplifiers with their higher output impedance are less ideal voltage amplifiers than the solid state voltage amplifiers with their smaller output impedance. Soft clipping[ edit ] Soft clipping is a very important aspect of tube sound especially for guitar amplifiers. A hi-fi amplifier should not normally ever be driven into clipping.
The Electric Guitar Amplifier Handbook.pdf
The harmonics added to the signal are of lower energy with soft clipping than hard clipping. However, soft clipping is not exclusive to tubes. It can be simulated in transistor circuits below the point that real hard clipping would occur.
See "Intentional distortion" section.
Large amounts of global negative feedback are not available in tube circuits, due to phase shift in the output transformer, and lack of sufficient gain without large numbers of tubes. With lower feedback, distortion is higher and predominantly of low order.
The onset of clipping is also gradual. Large amounts of feedback, allowed by transformerless circuits with many active devices, leads to numerically lower distortion but with more high harmonics, and harder transition to clipping.
As input increases, the feedback uses the extra gain to ensure that the output follows it accurately until the amplifier has no more gain to give and the output saturates. However, phase shift is largely an issue only with global feedback loops. Design architectures with local feedback can be used to compensate the lack of global negative feedback magnitude.
Design "selectivism" is again a trend to observe: designers of sound producing devices may find the lack of feedback and resulting higher distortion beneficial, designers of sound reproducing devices with low distortion have often employed local feedback loops.
Soft clipping is also not a product of lack of feedback alone: Tubes have different characteristic curves. Factors such as bias affect the load line and clipping characteristics. Fixed and cathode-biased amplifiers behave and clip differently under overdrive.
The type of phase inverter circuitry can also affect greatly on softness or lack of it of clipping: long-tailed pair circuit, for example, has softer transition to clipping than a cathodyne. The coupling of the phase inverter and power tubes is also important, since certain types of coupling arrangements e. In the recording industry and especially with microphone amplifiers it has been shown that amplifiers are often overloaded by signal transients.
Russell O. Steven Mintz wrote a rebuttal to Hamm's paper, saying that the circuit design was of paramount importance, more than tubes vs solid state components. Monteith Jr and Richard R. Flowers in their article "Transistors Sound Better Than Tubes", which presented transistor mic preamplifier design that actually reacted to transient overloading similarly as the limited selection of tube preamplifiers tested by Hamm.
A particular 'sound' may be incurred or avoided at the designer's pleasure no matter what active devices he uses.
In practice the clipping characteristics are largely dictated by the entire circuitry and as so they can range from very soft to very hard, depending on circuitry.
Same applies to both vacuum tube and solid-state -based circuitry. For example, solid-state circuitry such as operational transconductance amplifiers operated open loop, or MOSFET cascades of CMOS inverters, are frequently used in commercial applications to generate softer clipping than what is provided by generic triode gain stages. In fact, the generic triode gain stages can be observed to clip rather "hard" if their output is scrutinized with an oscilloscope.
Bandwidth[ edit ] Early tube amplifiers often had limited response bandwidth , in part due to the characteristics of the inexpensive passive components then available.
In power amplifiers most limitations come from the output transformer; low frequencies are limited by primary inductance and high frequencies by leakage inductance and capacitance. Another limitation is in the combination of high output impedance, decoupling capacitor and grid resistor, which acts as a high-pass filter.
The Electric Guitar Amplifier Handbook - J. Darr (Sams, 1973) WW
If interconnections are made from long cables for example guitar to amp input , a high source impedance with high cable capacitance will act as a low-pass filter. Negative feedback[ edit ] Typical non-OTL tube power amplifiers could not use as much negative feedback NFB as transistor amplifiers due to the large phase shifts caused by the output transformers and their lower stage gains. While the absence of NFB greatly increases harmonic distortion, it avoids instability, as well as slew rate and bandwidth limitations imposed by dominant-pole compensation in transistor amplifiers.
However, the effects of using low feedback principally apply only to circuits where significant phase shifts are an issue e. In preamplifier stages, high amounts of negative feedback can easily be employed.
Such designs are commonly found from many tube-based applications aiming to higher fidelity.
On the other hand, the dominant pole compensation in transistor amplifiers is precisely controlled: exactly as much of it can be applied as needed to strike a good compromise for the given application. The effect of dominant pole compensation is that gain is reduced at higher frequencies. There is increasingly less NFB at high frequencies due to the reduced loop gain. Power supplies[ edit ] Early tube amplifiers had power supplies based on rectifier tubes.
These supplies were unregulated, a practice which continues to this day in transistor amplifier designs. The typical anode supply was a rectifier , perhaps half-wave, a choke inductor and a filter capacitor.
When the tube amplifier was operated at high volume, due to the high impedance of the rectifier tubes, the power supply voltage would dip as the amplifier drew more current assuming class AB , reducing power output and causing signal modulation. The dipping effect is known as "sag. As the amplifier load or output increases this voltage drop will increase distortion of the output signal.
Sometimes this sag effect is desirable for guitar amplification. The resistance can be switched in when required.Guntherschulze, , pages - Courtesy of an anonymous donor A translation of an older German text on rectifier tubes. More feedback results in lower output impedance. By that definition, The Guitar Amp Handbook is the ultimate handbook for guitar amps. There exists also a minority of electrostatic loudspeakers and some other more exotic loudspeakers.
Write a customer review. He is able to be informative without going over anyone's head, speak to the layman without being condescending and be funny without being awkward or corny.
Due to the nature of vacuum tubes and audio transformers, the output impedance of an average tube amplifier is usually considerably higher than the modern audio amplifiers produced completely without vacuum tubes or audio transformers.
The Practical Handbook.