SGAE () Anuario Sgae de las artes escénicas, musicales y audiovisuales ( Madrid). Shrum, W. Thompson, J.B. () Merchants of Culture: The Publishing Business in the Available at http:// adunsexanro.gq adunsexanro.gq Anuario estadístico del Ministerio del Interior catalogo/anuarios/ adunsexanro.gq [accessed: 25 March ]. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ANUARIO SGAE DE LAS ARTES ESCÉNICAS, MUSICALES Y . Nota: mientras que en ediciones anteriores del Anuario se utilizaban .
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SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC. Multi-Language. Anuario de Estudios Americanos SPAIN. Spanish. Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia. Trends in Programming () Trying to identify patterns in classical music .. “Anuario SGAE de las Artes Escénicas, Musicales y Audiovisuales, ”. Mulheres nas eleições / José Eustáquio Diniz Alves; Céli Regina Jardim Pinto; Fátima. Jordão Sage publications, LUKE, T. W. adunsexanro.gq br/hotSites/CatalogoPublicacoes/pdf/relatorio-eleicoespdf>. Acesso em: 15 PALMEIRA, M.; HEREDIA, B. Os comícios e as políticas de facções. Anuário.
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Google Scholar Cohen, S. Google Scholar Coker, C. PDF Crawford, T. Google Scholar Deni, J. Google Scholar Dorman, A. Google Scholar Dueck, C. These patients were studied by the authors at 20 and 23 years of age, respectively. In the neuropsychological tests, they were unable to give appropriate responses to social situations or reason when faced with social dilemmas.
Patients were not familiar with social rules, unlike individuals who have suffered damage in the ofPFC as adults; they showed lack of empathy or remorse. They also showed immature moral reasoning and a more intense antisocial behaviour than those who had suffered damage as adults; these subjects showed a behaviour similar to that of adult primary psychopaths. The age of onset of the injury was also important.
The emotions of these individuals were superficial, unstable, and strongly influenced by immediate situations. As with psychopaths, these patients did not seem to be able to learn from experience. Another study conducted with eight patients with early-onset injury, before age 17, in the vmPFC was carried out by Taber-Thomas et al. According to the results, the subjects supported significantly more subjective judgments that were against moral rules or involved inflicting harm to others, and the probability of these last behaviours was greater the earlier during development the damage in such cortical region had occurred.
However, the subjective assessment that someone makes of his previous conduct should not, as such, be considered in the field of Criminal Law. A confluence between the offender's moral values and the values of law is not necessary.
Criminal Law is not that ambitious. Damage or Dysfunction of the Amygdala There are some studies with subjects that have suffered damage to the amygdala because of calcification, due to the Urbach-Wiese disease. These subjects do not learn fear conditioning Bechara et al.
In most cases, patients with bilateral lesions in the amygdala do not show social deficits that are clearly apparent.
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One explanation that has been offered for this is that in many cases it is unknown when the damage occurred during development, and it is possible they may have learned to behave in social situations. The patient S. When asked to look at the eyes of an image expressing the emotion of fear, then her performance is comparable to that of normal subjects Adolphs et al. Some studies have found significant associations between the amygdala's volume and psychopathic characters Gregory et al.
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In terms of the differences in cortical structures between individuals with and without psychopathy, some studies report a reduction in the volume of gray matter cerebral cortex in the anterior mPFC and temporal pole Gregory et al. Boccardi et al. Other studies are reviewed in Umbach, Berryessa, and Raine The morphology of axon tracts connecting different brain regions has also been studied. Two studies Craig et al.
The reduction in the integrity of the UF was associated with the Facet 4 of Factor 2 poor behavioural control, behavioural problems in childhood, juvenile offenses, etc.
A study by Sundram et al. A study by Wolff et al. Therefore, this reduction in the right UF observed in all studies to date could be a biological marker of a distinguishing feature of psychopathy, such as interpersonal features.
Another study Sethi et al. It has been proposed that the mechanism behind alterations in these two fascicles in psychopaths is the lack of maturation of the white matter Sethi et al. There have also been studies of white matter anomalies in adolescents with behavioural disorders Pape et al. These have a high risk of developing antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.
The study by Sarkar et al. The study by Pape et al. Kiehl et al. The psychopaths showed a smaller difference between the functional responses to the two types of words in the amygdala, hippocampal formation, parahippocampal gyrus, nucleus accumbens, ACC and PCC. Research using fMRI has been conducted to evaluate changes in the amygdala associated with moral judgments, processing of facial expressions, emotional memory, processing of abstract and concrete words, and theory of mind Blair, b.
In addition, the reduced amygdala activity in this study correlated with the four facets of psychopathy, and in terms of cortical regions the mPFC, PCC, and the angular gyrus showed less activity in psychopaths who obtained high scores on the interpersonal factor.
It has also been proposed that psychopaths have an attenuated emotional response to fear and anxiety in particular Lykken, This attenuated fear response explains the deficit in fear conditioning, in the physiological anticipation of unpleasant events and, therefore, in the lack of fear or anxiety related to unpleasant events such as witnessing a subject being brutally hurt.
Studies examining the functionality of the amygdala during fear conditioning have arrived at contradictory results, some have found deficiencies Birbaumer et al. We attribute such inconsistencies to methodological aspects. The authors observed low activity in the amygdala in response to fear and high reactivity to anger. The low reactivity to fear was associated with the interpersonal facet, that is, with what can be described as the discomfort of the person showing the expression; such low activity to signs of fear has been suggested to be the basis of instrumental aggression.
In turn, the high reactivity to expressions of anger was associated with the facet of life style, and would be the basis of reactive aggression.
In contrast, a study by Decety, Skelly, Yoder, and Kiehl found no differences in the amygdala between psychopaths and non-psychopaths in response to facial expressions displayed using video clips.
From a legal perspective, it is a very difficult issue.
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The only sources of legitimacy would be, in that cases, the social ones. And it supposes a serious legitimacy problem. Nevertheless, it does not happen with all criminal theories there is, then, here another important theoretical and legal question.
One of the first functional studies of the prefrontal cortex of psychopathic subjects was performed by Raine et al. The murderers they called predators corresponding to psychopaths had an activity of the prefrontal cortex the authors did not distinguish among regions similar to that of control subjects, but they showed greater subcortical activity.
Yang and Raine conducted a meta-analysis to try to integrate cortical functional findings in psychopathic, antisocial, and violent individuals. Several studies have found a reduced activation of the vmPFC and the ofPFC when psychopaths observe emotional facial expressions in people being hurt Decety et al.
These studies have demonstrated from a behavioural point of view that psychopaths are able to distinguish between right and wrong actions, in addition to interpret the emotional consequences of such actions on other people. Interestingly, it has been found using fMRI that when they are asked to pay attention to a perpetrator doing something wrong, there is decreased activity in areas that are related to empathy and perspective taking amygdala, insula, nucleus accumbens, and several regions from the PFC such as the dlPFC, vlPFC, mPFC.
However, psychopaths exhibited increased activation in these same network areas when they had to infer the emotional state of a victim of a harmful action. Hard branding the city through cultural flagships, festivals, events, landmark buildings and a lively social life Evans, will attract not only creative people, creative industries and investors but also tourists whose spending activity is important the economic development of a city or region.
Following the increasing significance of culture for the economic development of a city, the role of place branding is getting more and more important Zukin, In order to examine the role of branding in the cultural and economic growth of cities, the paper will use academic literature to explore the interrelation between cities, culture and creativity. To give a better insight of the importance of branding in modern societies, the first chapter will offer some background information starting from the industrial period.
By introducing terms like Fordism, Post-Fordism and new economy or cultural industries and creative industries aspire to offer a better understanding for the next chapters. Following to that, I will examine the key role of place for the creative activity of a city as well as for the branding and marketing strategies.
The role of culture and urban regeneration in the process of branding a city is to be explored in the next chapter. To do so, I will offer multiple examples of city branding trough cultural events of small or large scale.
Last, after having offered a better understanding of the branding notion, the following section will examine the negative effects arising from the branding process. More specifically, the industrial or Fordist1 societies were characterized by the uniform mass production of a high volume of material products, focusing on quantity instead of quality. However, the new rules of the global economy high competition, mechanization, automation, de-industrialization as well as the shift from the functional to the symbolic value of material goods led to the development of the service sector of the Post-industrial or Post-Fordist society.
This did not mean that the mass production sector was over; only that it moved to another part of the world, in the developing countries of Asia China, India etc. According to Scott, the new structures of production and work of the Post-Fordism can be characterized as the new economy , the emergence of which has been accompanied by a significant expansion in the number of workers endowed with high levels of human capital in regard to functions such as analytical thinking, judgment and decision-making, fluency of ideas, social perceptiveness, capacities for interaction with others, and imaginativeness, as well as in regard to substantive knowledge and expertise -in technology, medicine, business, policy analysis, the arts, and so on Scott, , p.
As a result, his new system designated the aesthetic value of goods where both design and brand became of high significance. The critical relationship of culture and economic development was evident quite early, in the mid 20th century, in the work of the philosophers and members of the Frankfurt School Marx Adorno and Theodor W.
In their work, they criticized the development of capitalist modernization where culture, advertising and mass media were used as means of social control.
For them, the words industry and culture were diametrically opposite, and their combination would turn culture into a product of mass production and mass-consumption Bounia, For them, people shape common values and lifestyles through arts, culture and other intangible products of leisure and pleasure film, television, radio, books, press etc. These industries stressed the importance of creativity in the urban environment. With the emergence of new technologies and information the term creative industries was introduced, characterizing activities based on talent, skills, innovation, knowledge and creativity.
According to Richards and Wilson , p. In this process, culture was again a crucial part of the creative activity. The significance of culture for the economic generation of a city is evident in the work of Richard Florida, too. The leading academic figure of the Creative City and Creative Class 2 concepts stressed the important role of culture especially for cities struggling with post-industrial post-Fordist changes in production and consumption and a global competition for talent.
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Hann, Today, multiple examples of creative cities across the world can cross our minds. Why place matters Place is according to Florida an essential element of economic life.
For him, a creative environment, where culture, entertainment consumption and urban amenities flourish, is key for a city s cultural and economic growth as well as for citizens quality of life. The Creative City concept that Florida described can be applied in a place where talent, tolerance and technology meet; such a place can attract the members of the Creative Class Hann, Other leading academic figures of the Creative Cities concept such 2 n his work, Florida has divided the Creative Class in segments; the super Creative Core artists, actors, designers, engineers, scientists, academics, architects, novelists, actors etc.
The service sector was also important for the function of the Creative Class Florida, Researchers, sociologists and academics that examined the importance of the location for the economic activity noticed that inclusive, diverse, innovative and tolerant places attract the clustering of creative industries, with Silicon Valley or Hollywood being typical examples Florida, As a result of the ongoing academic discourse around the importance of place, branding and marketing strategies have developed in post-industrial societies in order to establish the uniqueness of places in the global creativity competition Florida, In this process, culture regeneration strategies are increasingly involved in the agenda of urban planners.
Ranging from culture-led regeneration in which culture is considered as catalyst for development, through cultural regeneration , where culture is an integral part of regional strategy, to culture and regeneration , where culture is not of integrated in cultural development plans Evans, , culture has been an important tool for regeneration strategies that lead to place- branding and, hence, economic development.After three months in Madrid, the play is now on tour, probably because of the necessity to see plays that deal with the crisis, but also because the play is advertised as a sharp satire on our situation and Pablo Carbonell, one of the most well-known Spanish comedians, plays the leading role.
Journal of Consumer Policy, 28, pp. Just 16 per cent belong to federations that do not explicitly seek a long-term challenge to the economic status quo PFA, : Nevertheless, it does not happen with all criminal theories there is, then, here another important theoretical and legal question.
Indian J Cancer. Cronan, T.