UU SJSN: Pasal 1. Pemerintah secara bertahap mendaftarkan penerima bantuan iuran sebagai peserta kepada. Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial. 2 . Amanah UU BPJS. Kematian. PENERIMA BANTUAN IURAN. Penduduk Miskin dan Tidak. Mampu. PNS/TNI/POLRI. Dialihkan tahun Pelaksanaan program Jamkesmas mengikuti prinsip-prinsip penyelenggaraan sebagaimana yang diatur dalam UU SJSN, yaitu dikelola secara nasional.
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MENUJU SISTEM JAMINAN SOSIAL NASIONAL: PEMETAKAN DAN TELAAH KRITIS ASOSIASI FASILITAS PELAYANAN KESEHATAN SEBELUM UU NO. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader. Sesuai amanat Undang-Undang Nomor 40 Tahun tentang Sistem Jaminan Sosial Nasional (SJSN) dan. Undang-Undang Nomor 24 Tahun tentang. Untuk melaksanakan ketentuan Pasal 41 ayat (8) dan Pasal 42 ayat (2) Undang- Undang tentang Sistem Jaminan Sosial Nasional, Presiden.
The public health system faces a full spectrum of challenges from the high-mortality infectious diseases of poverty to the more complex and chronic problems of noncommunicable diseases. Global, regional, and national age—sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for causes of death, — a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet ; : — Competition for budget among ministries has always been difficult for the health sector, but there has been progress in recent years as central government expenditure on health rose from Rp Profil Kesehatan Indonesia Tahun Jakarta: Ministry of Health; ; p.
Politics of Inequality in Indonesia: Does Democracy Matter?
As a result, health finance and services became a patchwork of uncoordinated, inadequately standardized and supervised public and private enterprises. However, the provision of health care through government only creates infectivity and inefficiency Testa and Block , Instead of enhancing the quality of health of all members of society, provision of health care by the government only creates rising costs in the medical system.
Even though Wolfson observed a different kind of social protection policy i. To solve the problem of inefficiency and inffectiveness, neoliberalism constructs its own agenda in regards to health care. Mcgregor argues that the neoliberal agenda of health care reform includes cost cutting for efficiency, decentralizing to the local or regional level removing responsibility from the national level and setting up health care as a private good for sale rather than a public good paid for with taxpayer money.
For her, these three reform agendas reflect three basic tenets of neoliberalism: 1 the necessity of the free market in which we work and consume ; 2 individualism; and 3 the pursuit of narrow self-interest rather than mutual interest, with the assumption that these three tenets will lead to social good. According to Mukhopadhyay , this agenda is needed for structural consolidation of capital.
In his research of health care service in India, private provisioning encouraged corporate expansion over the last two decades. In there were some 35 corporations. By the number jumped to In total income was only 8, million rupee. This increased to 35, million rupee in This meant an annual average increase of 18 per cent in real terms adjusted for inflation.
This is more than double the real GDP growth rate during this period. It can be said that there was a rapid consolidation of the corporate sector because of the removal of government provision in health care Mukhopadhyay, , p.
However, the question remains; is it possible to completely ignore the role of the government for the implementation of the neoliberal agenda? For me, the answer is no. According to Robison , neoliberalism was to be more than just a reincarnation of laissez-faire sentiment or a simple neo-classical attachment to the idea of the inherent efficiency of markets.
It aims at nothing less than extending the values and relations of markets into a model for the broader organization of politics and society. Neoliberals recognise the political nature of a task that includes dismantling entrenched systems of welfare and developmental capitalism characterized by powerful labour unions and welfare coalitions. In this case, the role of the government is to facilitate the operation of market mechanisms within the social protection policy.
In conclusion, neoliberalism of health care means the expansion of the market in the realm of health care. The role of the government should be limited as the facilitator for market.
This belief constructs a rationale about the necessity of private provisioning of health care. On the contrary, the private provisioning only benefits the private sector to consolidate their capital and gain more profit. As it explains, the use of the discourse of crisis to deliberately bring about the urgency for neoliberal reform, the rationale for this health care design came also from the need to overcome the crisis that hit the Indonesian economy.
By , Indonesia was slowly recovering, and posted economic growth of 2. However, continued weaknesses in the governance of the financial sector undermined the potential for higher growth.
Weak and uneven regulation and supervision capabilities contributed to the development of a fragile, structurally unbalanced, financial sector.
The reform then needed to strengthen and improve the stability of the financial sector so that it could effectively paly its role in facilitating long-term economic growth. The establishment of OJK itself is in part to improve coordination in the financial sector in which OJK is responsible for banking supervision tasks and the supervision of nonbank financial services.
The nuance of market logic in JKN is becoming more obvious if the detail of the implementation is considered. However, the membership in the JKN is not referring to the rights of citizens to obtain qualified social security.
In order to gain membership, citizen still needs to pay a premium like paying insurance.
ILO UU SERIKAT PEKERJA (ENGLISH) FOR PDF
Here, the main principle of the administration of JKN is based on individualism. However, there is still a doubt in this mechanism. Statistically, there is only 37 percent of formal workers in the whole Indonesian labor force Ahniar and Akbar, that is considered capable to pay premiums on a regular basis.
To overcome this issue, government intervention is needed. In the early stages JKN program, the government will disburse Rp Here, it is important to look at JKN not as a usual form of profit-based insurance but as a form of social insurance.
The consequence of this differentiation between profit-based and social insurance is they operate in a different market base.
If profit-based insurance is targeting middle-high income, JKN is more focusing on middle-low income population. Nonetheless, each time the government announced its intention to raise fuel prices, public protests as well as strong oppositions from the parliament arose. President Yudhoyono always had to address public opinions and negotiate with political parties not only from the opposition camp but also within the ruling coalition. Therefore, Yudhoyono could not completely remove fuel subsidies as a fundamental solution; rather, he cut subsidies at a minimum amount on an ad hoc basis in response to oil price hikes.
Jokowi told the public that budget expenditure saved from the abolition of fuel subsidies would be used for social welfare programs and infrastructure development.
Indonesia: On the Way to Universal Health Care
The public generally showed their acceptance to this sudden move, and the parliament did not show open objections despite there being sporadic protests on the street and some parliamentary members discussing their concerns. This is partly because fuel prices were decreased when the government announced the removal of fuel subsidies in December Thus, Jokowi seized the opportunity to announce a fundamental subsidy system reform that might cause political and public oppositions during a time of decreasing international oil prices, as observed in other fuel-subsidizing countries such as Malaysia and India Beaton et al.
More importantly, the reason why Jokowi took the decisive move to eliminate fuel subsidies is that his political support base is from the middle to lower classes. Jokowi is the first president who was born from the general public, not from the traditional ruling elite.
He was originally a local furniture businessman, advancing his political career from the city mayor of central Java, Surakarta, and the governor of the national capital, Jakarta. His political style is different from the traditional elite in the sense that he is against the traditional interest structure, willing to reform the government to become more pro-people and pro-poor.
Since the election campaign period, Jokowi made public his promise to reform fuel subsidies and reallocate expenditures to the social sectors and rural development.
Thus, Jokowi is the first president who is explicitly a populist politician, having his constituencies in the middle to lower classes. Because he represents the interests of the lower classes, Jokowi could begin to reform the fuel subsidy system embedded in the existing elite interests. Notwithstanding, the parliament is still occupied by political parties that lack the capabilities and incentives to organize a political support base at the lower strata of society, resulting in prevalence of clientelistic politics and corruption.
Footnotes 1. A World Bank report points out that the sampling methodology changed so significantly in that the poverty and inequality series are not strictly comparable between and before and after World Bank , p.
See also Priebe The widening economic gap is economically attributed to the uneven distribution of benefits from economic growth. A World Bank report revealed incomes of richer households grow faster than those of the lower middle class World Bank Then, it is argued that the uneven distribution of growth benefits was partly caused by the commodities boom in —Firdaus, F. The consequence of this differentiation between profit-based and social insurance is they operate in a different market base.
ILO UU SERIKAT PEKERJA (ENGLISH) FOR PDF
Assistance to the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration MOMT , and to provincial government agencies, in the establishment of procedures and practices for the performance of administrative functions under the Act. This paper tries to elaborate how neoliberalism penetrates the logic of social protection policy like health care in Indonesia and how this penetration impacts the development of health in Indonesia.
Competition for budget among ministries has always been difficult for the health sector, but there has been progress in recent years as central government expenditure on health rose from Rp The nuance of market logic in JKN is becoming more obvious if the detail of the implementation is considered.
However, the provision of health care through government only creates infectivity and inefficiency Testa and Block , The public generally showed their acceptance to this sudden move, and the parliament did not show open objections despite there being sporadic protests on the street and some parliamentary members discussing their concerns.
Jakarta: Ministry of Health; ; p.
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