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Weiser, in his prophetic paper, argued the most far-reaching technologies are those that allow themselves to disappear, vanish into thin air. Over the years, many of his concepts regarding pervasive and ubiquitous computing UbiComp [ 2 , 3 ] have been materialized into what today we call Wireless Sensor Networks [ 4 , 5 ], Internet of Things [ 6 , 7 ], Wearables [ 8 , 9 ], and Cyber-Physical Systems [ 10 , 11 ].
The applications of these systems range from traffic accident and CO2 emission monitoring to autonomous automobile and patient in-home care. Nevertheless, besides all their benefits, the advent of those systems per se have also brought about some drawbacks. Those capabilities, in turn, make proposals for conventional computers ill-suited in the UbiComp setting and present new challenges. In the above scenarios, some of the most critical challenges lie in the areas of Security and Privacy [ 13 ].
This is so because the market and users often pursue a system full of features at the expense of proper operation and protection; although, conversely, as computing elements pervade our daily lives, the demand for stronger security schemes becomes greater than ever. Notably, there is a dire need for a secure mechanism able to encompass all aspects and manifestations of UbiComp, across time as well as space, and in a seamless and efficient manner.
In this paper, we discuss contemporary security and privacy issues in the context of UbiComp Fig. We examine multiple research problems still open and point to promising approaches towards their solutions. More precisely, we investigate the following challenges and their ramifications.
Software protection in Section 2 : we study the impact of the adoption of weakly typed languages by resource-constrained devices and discuss mechanisms to mitigate this impact. We go over techniques to validate polyglot software i.
Cryptography engineering in Section 4 : we restate the essential role of cryptography in safeguarding computers, discuss the status quo of lightweight cryptosystems and their secure implementation, and highlight challenges in key management protocols. Resilience in Section 5 : we highlight issues related to service availability and we reinforce the importance of resilience in the context of UbiComp. Identity Management in Section 6 : we examine the main requirements to promote identity management IdM in UbiComp systems to achieve invisibility, revisit the most used federated IdM protocols, and explore open questions, research opportunities to provide a proper IdM approach for pervasive computing.
Privacy implications in Section 7 : we explain why security is necessary but not sufficient to ensure privacy, go over important privacy-related issues e. Forensics in Section 8 we present the benefit of the synergistic use of physical and digital evidences to facilitate trustworthy operations of cyber systems. We believe that only if we tackle these challenges right, we can turn the science fiction of UbiComp into science fact.
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Particularly, we choose to address the areas above because they represent promising research directions e cover different aspects of UbiComp security and privacy. Software protection Modern UbiComp systems are rarely built from scratch.
Components developed by different organizations, with different programming models and tools, and under different assumptions are integrated to offer complex capabilities. In this section, we analyze the software ecosystem that emerges from such a world. This fact is natural, given the unparalleled efficiency of these two programming languages. The formal definitions of these properties are immaterial for the discussion that follows.
Therefore, programs written in these languages can access invalid memory positions. As an illustration of the dangers incurred by this possibility, it suffices to know that out-of-bounds access are the principle behind buffer overflow exploits.
Such techniques can be fully static, fully dynamic or a hybrid of both approaches. Static protection mechanisms are implemented at the compiler level; dynamic mechanisms are implemented at the runtime level.
In the rest of this section, we list the most well-known elements in each category.
Static analyses provide a conservative estimate of the program behavior, without requiring the execution of such a program. This broad family of techniques includes, for instance, abstract interpretation [ 15 ], model checking [ 16 ] and guided proofs [ 17 ]. The main advantage of static analyses is the low runtime overhead, and its soundness: inferred properties are guaranteed to always hold true.
However, static analyses have also disadvantages.
In particular, most of the interesting properties of programs lay on undecidable land [ 18 ]. Furthermore, the verification of many formal properties, even though a decidable problem, incur a prohibitive computational cost [ 19 ]. The virtues and limitations of dynamic analyses are exactly the opposite of those found in static techniques.
Dynamic analyses usually do not raise false alarms: bugs are described by examples, which normally lead to consistent reproduction [ 26 ].
Lessons from Marx’s Capital
However, they are not required to always find security vulnerabilities in software. Furthermore, the runtime overhead of dynamic analyses still makes it prohibitive to deploy them into production software [ 27 ].
As a middle point, several research groups have proposed ways to combine static and dynamic analyses, producing different kinds of hybrid approaches to secure low-level code. This combination might yield security guarantees that are strictly more powerful than what could be obtained by either the static or the dynamic approaches, when used separately [ 28 ].
Nevertheless, negative results still hold: if an attacker can take control of the program, usually he or she can circumvent state-of-the-art hybrid protection mechanisms, such as control flow integrity [ 29 ]. This fact is, ultimately, a consequence of the weak type system adopted by languages normally seen in the implementation of UbiComp systems.
Reading Fanon in the 21st Century
Therefore, the design and deployment of techniques that can guard such programming languages, without compromising their efficiency to the point where they will no longer be adequate to UbiComp development, remains an open problem.
In spite of the difficulties of bringing formal methods to play a larger role in the design and implementation of programming languages, much has already been accomplished in this field.
Testimony to this statement is the fact that today researchers are able to ensure the safety of entire operating system kernels, as demonstrated by Gerwin et al. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to think that certain safety measures might come at the cost of performance and therefore we foresee that much of the effort of the research community in the coming years will be dedicated to making formal methods not only more powerful and expressive, but also more efficient to be used in practice.
Polyglot programming Polyglot programming is the art and discipline of writing source code that involves two or more programming languages. In the last year of his life, he devoted himself principally and furiously to writing the book published posthumously as The Wretched of the Earth.
He died, much too young, in The book became something like a bible for all those involved in the many and diverse movements that culminated in the world revolution of After the initial flames of 68 died out, Wretched of the Earth receded into a quieter corner. As he wrote in the Introduction to Black Skin, White Masks, Fanon thought that to overcome the alienation of the black man would require more than what Freudian psychoanalysis had to offer.
Freud had argued the need to move beyond a phylogenetic to an ontogenetic explanation; for Fanon, what was required was a sociogenic explanation. Although Black Skin, White Masks would have a second life as a central text in the postmodern canon, thirty years after it was published, the book was in no way a call to identity politics. The disaster and inhumanity of the white man lie in the fact that somewhere he has killed man.
And even today they subsist, to organize this dehumanization rationally. But I as a man of colour, to the extent that it becomes possible for me to exist absolutely, do not have the right to lock myself into a world of retroactive reparations.
I, the man of colour, want only this: That the tool never possesses the man. That the enslavement of man by man cease forever; that is, of one by another. That it may become possible for me to discover and to love man, wherever he may be. The Negro is not. Any more than the white man.And it is common knowledge that distributed programming opens up several doors to malicious users.
Components developed by different organizations, with different programming models and tools, and under different assumptions are integrated to offer complex capabilities.
They may also feel incompetent—anxious and embarrassed about acting in a way so far outside their comfort zone. Over the years, many of his concepts regarding pervasive and ubiquitous computing UbiComp [ 2 , 3 ] have been materialized into what today we call Wireless Sensor Networks [ 4 , 5 ], Internet of Things [ 6 , 7 ], Wearables [ 8 , 9 ], and Cyber-Physical Systems [ 10 , 11 ].
Thomas H. Anat was able to give feedback better tailored to an American audience while retaining some of her direct, demanding Israeli style. Lavoie gained visibility at every level of the company and ensured that getting EMC through the crisis was an all-hands initiative rather than a top-down edict. The key is to embrace and even create positive interruptions.